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江西成人高考学位英语考试:常用英语惯用语辨析

时间:2020-06-02 15:01来源:江西继续教育网 作者:江西成考网 点击:
  (1)no standing与free-standing:
 
  no standing意思是不准在此停车(即使司机还在车上也不行),也就是"don't stop"或"no car at all",通常用在大城市交通十分拥挤的地方。至于"no parking",意思也是不准在此停车,但司机还可以坐在车里一段时间,必要时,可随时移动车子,也就是"you may stay in your car for a short period of time"。例如:
 
  In New York City there are many"no standing"signs posted on the streets.
 
  在纽约市,路上有许多"不准停车"的牌子。
 
  "No parking"signs sprang up around the school campus in America.
 
  美国校园里出现一些"不准停车"的路牌。
 
  但是free-standing(adj,in dividual or separate building for a specific purpose),意思是独立式的,多指为特别用途而盖的单独建筑物或指一大建筑物的某种装饰。例如:
 
  There is a new free-standing restaurant near the down town area.
 
  在市中心区附近有座新的独立餐馆。
 
  (2)break the house与housebreak:
 
  housebreak(to train pets to live proper hygiene at home)是指训练狗、猫等宠物,使其能在指定的地点大、小便,以保持家里的卫生。例如:
 
  Pet owners should housebreak their dogs and cats.
 
  宠物主人应该训练狗猫的卫生习惯。
 
  但是"break the house"的意思是damage the house。例如:
 
  Accidentally,he broke the house by backing up his car.
 
  他倒车时,意外碰坏了房子。
 
  (3)kick off与tip off:
 
  kick off(officially start or beg in something)(有时也指球赛)意思是指任何事情的正式开始。例如:
 
  Our school has recently kicked off a mass fundraising campaign.
 
  我们学校最近发起一次大规模的筹款运动。
 
  但是,tip off(the beginning of official basketball game)虽然也指开始,不过多半是指篮球开赛前,裁判开球让两边球员争球。例如:
 
  The players tipped off the basketball game at 2:00 yesterday afternoon.
 
  篮球赛于昨天下午两点开始。
 
  to tip somebody off(to inform somebody)意思是通知某人。
 
  (4)in line与on the line:
 
  in line有许多意义,但最常见的意思是服从,不越轨,或按次序(obey,con trol or in the order)。例如:
 
  The government is trying to keep the price of gas in line.
 
  政府正设法控制汽油的价格。反之,out of line就是出格,不妥或举止不当。例如:
 
  His opinions are out of line with reality.
 
  他的意见是不合实际的。然而,(something)on the line意思又是"以某种事物为赌注或冒险"。例如:
 
  Many police have put their lives on the line.
 
  许多警察都冒着生命的危险。
 
  If you continue to be hostile toward me,our friendship will be on the line.
 
  假如你继续与我敌对,我们的友谊就有危险。
 
  on-line指自动化,电脑化。例如:
 
  All the libraries in the U.S.are on-line.美国所有图书馆都是电脑化。
 
  (5)gifted child与exceptional child:
 
  gifted child一般是指IQ很高的孩子;美国中、小学也有gifted and talented program(简称G and T program),现在也叫magnet program。但是exceptional child是指特殊儿童,可能是指IQ很高,
 
  也可能指low IQ,除非在句子里特别说明,否则一般老外倒认为是智商较低或retarded child。例如:
 
  There are many gifted children in her class.
 
  她班上有很多智商很高的孩子。
 
  注:美国政府对低能孩子的教育,反而十分重视,因为政府希望低能学生也能成为社会有用的份子。
 
  They can be more productive members of society.
 
  (6)block out与black out:
 
  to block out(to plan something ahead)意思是草拟大纲或订出某种计划。例如:
 
  Her boss prefers her to block out her annual vacation time.
 
  老板要她订出每年度假的时间。
 
  但是black out的意思,多半是指停电(no electricity)。例如:
 
  This block was blacked out for hours last night.
 
  这个街区昨晚停电几个小时。
 
  California has experienced many black-outs this year.
 
  今年加州多次停电。
 
  (7)off course与of course:
 
  off course(out of line or in a wrong direction;not in the designated area)意思是偏离方向或越出指定的范围。例如:
 
  The ship was 200 international nautical miles off course.
 
  那船偏离航向200国际海里。
 
  反之,"on course"(right direction)就是正确方向。例如:
 
  President Bush is trying to put American economy on course.
 
  布什总统设法使美国经济走上正轨。
 
  但是"of course"意思是当然或自然(as a matter of fact)。例如:
 
  Of course,we will have turkey for Thanksgiving.
 
  感恩节我们当然要吃火鸡。
 
  They,of course,are excellent students in my class.
 
  他们当然是我班上最好的学生。
 
  (8)wanted poster与want ad:
 
  wanted poster通常是指通缉公告。例如:
 
  I saw several FBI wanted posters in the city.
 
  我在城里看到几张联邦调查局的通缉布告。
 
  但是want ad多半是指报纸杂志刊登的人找事或事找人的广告。例如:
 
  If you need a job,check the want ads in the newspaper.
 
  He got a job through a newspaper want ad.
 
  他从报纸的广告里找到一份工作。
 
  至于,"help wanted"是指"需要帮手"(need a helper),而"job wanted"是指"需要工作"
 
  (need a job)。例如:
 
  I will put a help wanted ad in our local newspaper.
 
  我要在地方报纸上刊登广告找帮手。
 
  (9)to tidy up与to tie up:
 
  to tidy up意思是整理或清理(to clean up)。例如:
 
  He is tidying up his garage.(desk,car,etc.)
 
  他正在清理车库。
 
  至于"to tie up loose ends"(to finish up something)又是一个十分常用的短语,意思是收拾零碎东西或完成某事。例如:
 
  I have to tie up loose ends be fore immigrating to Canada.
 
  我移民到加拿大前,必须办完零碎事情。(诸如打行李包等)
 
  Prior to her retirement,she has to tie up loose ends.
 
  她在退休前必须办完一些零碎的事情。
 
  (10)Surgeon General与chief surgeon:
 
  Surgeon General是美国公共卫生部部长,也就是掌握美国三军、联邦、州政府大众健康的最高官员(chief medical officer for the U.S.public health services)(也许因为与美国军队有关,故用"general")。例如:
 
  The Surgeon General was appointed by the President of the U.S..
 
  美国公共卫生部部长是由总统任命。
 
  但是,chief surgeon是指一般医院的手术室主任。
 
  Normally,the chief surgeon will perform the most delicate operations.
 
  通常手术室主任施行最复杂的手术。
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